|Kancho's essay館長エッセイ Last update 1/1/2023.. HOME|
Book review to "KENKYO-HA GOJU KARATE KEMPO-an Introduction to the Way of Karate"(ISBN978-1-4710-1553-3)
|→download(PDF:The author made his work freely available)|
|There are many schools of karate, but none have been the subject of historical,
theoretical and philosophical research as much as Goju-ryu.But ,with great
regret, in Japan young people who aspire to karate are not interested
in karate as a martial art. Their only concern is kumite game and kata
game for high scores in high school and college competitions .What's even
more surprising is that they don't even know that karate was an Okinawan
martial art in the first place, and have no interest in it.
|Example of karate books commonly sold in 20th century Japan.|
| It was common for karate books to contain extremely practical content.(Left:
1978 "Introduction to Karatedo" by Kuranosuke Kimura" /
Right: 1967 "Dynamic Karate" by Mas Oyama")
There are no books like this today.I(kancho of Yuzenkai) do'nt intend to completely deny competitive karate, but I fear that the essence of traditional karate will be lost. If so, I would even think that competitive karate represented by the Olympics would do a lot of harm.Karate is a martial art, a Zen, a philosophy, a health technique, and a way of self-cultivation.Dr. Dyson's book teaches that to the Japanese.
Apart from yuzenkai-dojo, I ( Kancho)also teach at two high school karate clubs. Their karate are jkf-wkf style. But I also teach yuzenkai style. It is for posterity.
Book review to Shihan Filip Konjokrad's Renshi dissertation
|...It is a surprise , a pleasure thing to see a foreigner who is interested
in a history of karate.At the frist,I would like to give my greatest compliments to the author,
Shihan Filip Konjokrad 's enthusiasm for collecting and reading a large
amount of Japanese literature. In addition, he came to Japan in 2018 and
interviewed the concerned persons. .
I (Kancho of Yuzenkai)think this kind of book could not have published in Japan. It can be said this fruit could only have been achieved in English by foreigner at abroad . There are too much reasons behind Japanese karate world that should be kept quiet, just like the world of politics.
| The following is the description by the author in Amazon store.
"Goju-Ryu Toudi Jutsu Nyumon is an introduction to Goju-Ryu Karate, one of the major styles of Karate in the world. It focuses on the Seiko Higa-Kanki Izumikawa lineage of Goju-Ryu. Many important topics are covered including: history of the art, biographies of key individuals, training methods, the bubishi and overviews of the kata. Other related styles such as Tou'on-Ryu, Ryuei-Ryu and Kojo-Ryu are discussed as well. The author introduces much new information which was not previously available to a wider audience. Several essays written by Chojun Miyagi 宮城長順(1888-1953)along with other pieces of oral history are included at the back. The book is packed with historical photographs from the author's personal collection, some of which have never been made public before. This book is sure to be enjoyed by all enthusiasts of Karate."
.."History and Stories of Goju-Ryu" tells the history of Goju-RyuKarate through biographies of its major historical figures. This book introduces for the first time, information on many prominent and lesser known historical figures of Goju-Ryu karate that was not previously available in English.The book is the result of intensive research by the author and translations
of many notes, articles and pages from other books such as the Okinawan Karate Kobuo Jitten. This book covers all the major lineages of Goju-Ryu and it is one of the most complete and up to date accounts of Goju-Ryuhistory published up until now. This will surely be a "must have"for all serious practitioners of Goju-Ryu Karate and Okinawan Karate asa whole who are interested in learning more about the people that had arole in its teaching and propagation.
| ..His two books have critical biographies of over 60 people involved in the
formation of Gojuryu.
..What is unique about the his research is a respect with the "Seiko Higa1898-1966(比嘉世幸)～Kanki Izumikawa1908-1967(泉川寛喜)"lineage which started dojo activities in 1930's earlier than Gogen Yamaguchi1909-1989(山口剛玄)'s GojuKai.
..Needless to say, Seiko Higa was Kanryo Higaonna1853-1895(東恩納寛量)'s direct student and Chojun Miyagi's senior student.Kanki Izumikawa was Juhatsu Kyoda(許田重発)'s direct student and Seiko Higa's senior student, and firstry introduced Okinawan Gojuryu to Japan mainland.
The persons the author mentions belong to the lineage were Sosui Ichikawa1924-2005(市川素水), Busen Arakawa1929-2016(荒川武仙), Hyotarou Harada1934-1998(原田彪太郎), Tadahiko Ootuka1940-2012(大塚忠彦), Keisetsu Yoshimaru1931-2014(吉丸慶雪), Kanbun Izumikawa(泉川寛文)1943-1982, Katsuya Izumikawa 1944～(泉川勝也)and Yoshiaki Naganuma1944～(長沼善秋:Kazunori Omoto's teacher).Perhaps it is the frist time, some of them published to the world.
| .The author talks.
" I also believe Seiko Higa’s Goju-Ryu represents the oldest version.There is a fundamental difference between the Goju-Ryu taught by Miyagi's line vs Higa's. Miyagi's Goju-Ryu was more focused on physical education, especially after the war. It was primarily for exercise and to make the person stronger. Miyagi actually stopped teaching the applications to the kata after war. Higa however always taught Goju-Ryu as a martial art, applications included."
| He talkes."At that time I didn’t know much about other schools of Goju-Ryu or
students of Chojun Miyagi. We were taught that Gogen Yamaguchi was his
most important student and founded Japanese Goju-Ryu.Around 2008-2010 I
began more research into Goju-Ryu and realised there is much more out there.
I learned more about the other students of Chojun Miyagi like Seiko Higa,
Meitoku Yagi 1912-2003(八木明徳)and Eiichi Miyazato1922-1999(宮里栄一). By watching
some videos, I also saw that Yamaguchi’s Goju has some big differences
from Okinawan Goju-Ryu. "
| "In the end Higa did not really care for the spotlight. Neither did Izumikawa or many of the others. Their way of practicing went against the trends of the time. Most karate in Japan has long since gone into the sport direction. When Izumikawa died in 1967 almost all the karate on Japan was the sport version."
The author also realizes that Higa Seko Goju-ryu is not equal to Izumikawa Kanki Goju-ryu. Izumikawa is not only a disciple of Higa but also Kyoda Juhatsu許田重発(1887-1968), and the author has been confirmed through field research that Izumikawa's Gekisai Nidan and Sanseru have strong similarities with Kyoda's Karate (東恩流:Touon-ryu).
|....The author's interest then turns to the mystery of the origin of Kata.Goju-ryu
is a historically new Okinawan karate. However, there are many mysteries
about the origin. It seems to be deliberately silent.He seems to have taken
a great deal of interest in solving the mystery.
..As is well known, Kanryo Higaonna trained three famous students. Chojun Miyagi, Juhatsu Kyoda and Seiko Higa. Juhatsu Kyoda later took the name Touon-Ryu. Touon is another pronunciation of Higaonna. Kyoda had appealed he was a direct successor of Kanryo Higaonna. According to recent research, Kanryo Higaonna had only four kata from which Gojuryu is derived: Sanchin, Sesan, Sanseiru and Petturin.(Moreover Petturin and Suparinpei are not the same Kata)It’s usually said Kanryo Higaonna taught nine kata to Chojun Miyagi but "this is almost certainly false. So where did the others come from?"
.The following article are excerpt of his covera.
| "Tetsuhiro Hokama, a well known Goju Ryu teacher said before in an
interview that Chojun Miyagi created Saifa kata. I also heard from a direct student of Seikichi Toguchi that Saifa
was created by Miyagi. It’s possible Chojun Miyagi saw and learned some
lion fist boxing in China and then created Saifa kata based on this. "..
. "The author heard a story from a student of Tadahiko Ohtsuka that Chojun Miyagi created Shisochin kata.It was based on the Tomari Te techniques of Seiyu Nakasone, a famous Tomari Te master. He was a close friend of Chojun Miyagi and Seiko Higa."
.."Recently, there was an interview published in the Okinawa times with Sadayuki Taira, a senior student of Meitoku Yagi. In this article, Sadayuki Taira said that Chojun Miyagi created Seipai kata. (The author was the first person to translate the article into English and published it on the his website .)"
In a book written by Morinbu Itoman in 1934 called Toudi Jutsu no Kenkyu ,he called Kururunfa “Hanashiro no Kururunfa”. "Does Kururunfa have something to do with Shuri Te master Chomo Hanashiro? Maybe Chomo Hanashiro taught this kata to Chojun Miyagi. "
| I (Kancho of Yuzenkai)had finished reading his books with a sense of nostalgia
to my youth...Despite a few mistranslations and typos, and biases derived from the position
of several interviewee, I found it very satisfying to read through.
Besides the Yuzenkai activity, I am involved in some high school karate clubs. In Japan, Karate at school education is, of course, WKF /JKF style. Is..it an exaggeration to say that “Goju-ryu as a martial art” will become an endangered species in Japan mainland? I discovered the possibility of overseas enthusiasts by his books.
He also investigated the relationship between Goju-ryu and Ryuei-ryu. It is interesting to note that Seiko Higa taught Goju-ryu to Kenko Nakaima, the fourth generation of Ryuei-ryu, and learned Ryuei-ryu Kobudo instead.
Higa's Gojury, including Genki Go's Kakufa, Matayoshi's Kobudo and Tomari-te's Kata(Aragaki no Unsu), is very interesting as a research subject.
The author's research on the new history of Goju-ryu karate serves us three points of view for reconsidering Goju-ryu karate.One is the Nahate of the consanguineous group of Higaonna, Higa, Kyoda and Izumikawa.Another one is the Nahate that Chojun Miyagi invented and named Goju-ryu Karate and taught to university students on the mainland.Another two is the Nahate in a broad sense, including Tomarite, Ryuei-ryu, and Uechi-ryu.
|2/8/2019 Reinstatement of Makiwara巻き藁の復権|
|..Makiwara is the representative and most traditional training tool of karate
with the history of hundreds of years.
But today ,we lost the sight of Makiwara training at not a few dojo. Was it replaced by modern training equipment? The answer is “No”.Because it is irrelevant to the competition,the moderncompetition sport Karate has eliminated Makiwara from dojo .This is equivalent
to excluding the essence of karate.
|The graph talks about this. The impulse with two peaks shows the features
of Karate’s tsuki.
So to speak, it is the wave that penetrates the body.The boxing punch has a momentary impetus.Of course, that's not the question of whether boxing or Karate is stronger. Karate has been developed as a technique to defeat the enemy various situations such as beache, ship, wilderness and slope.Karate’s tsuki’s force finally mages spine and or medulla .
Makiwara training is the best way to get the force. And we validate it
This type tsuki is the essence of Karate. We can say that present sports
Karate (whether it is full-contact or WKF), lacks in original essence of
|.During Makiwara training , we does not pull the fist as soon as the fist
We push the fist further with the movement of the scapula. While feeling the load of Makiwara, our fist comes back naturally with the repulsive force of Makiwara.
We can understand that Karate's tsuki is a whole-body movement by Makiwara
(The video is played by clicking on the photo.)
Karate's original tsuki can not be found in any way other than Makiwara.
Kata's realism is added by Makiwara training.Would you like to "rediscover"Makiwara too?
I want to mention that Karate understands the human body as a liquid nota solid.
At the end, Karate's tsuki is mainly an extensor movement. In boxing punches the movement of the flexors looks a big element.The shocking force of boxing comes from
the destructive force of sudden changes in the speed of the fist (the speed of switching from positive to negative).
The principles of both are similar but different.
|How to make homemade Makiwara
Bushi Matsumura were taught Karate by Chinese beggar？
|.Makoto Gima (儀間真謹1896-1989photo→) ,the greatest comrade of Gichin Funakoshi,reported
the legend of Kojo-Ryu(湖城流) of Okinawa as follow.
"Around1860, one of the castaways lived in the cave of Tomari cemetery. His name was Chan Nan.He was a mystery person, but was the high level master of Chinese martial arts."
"Chan Nan" was mentioned in the book written by Choki Motobu(本部朝基1870-1944). In the book, his name is written "禅南"in kanji.
..Actually, Sokon Matsumura (松村宗棍1809-1899), Anko Itosu (糸洲安恒1831-1915), Chotoku Kyan (喜屋武朝徳1870-1945), Kousaku Matsumora (松茂良興作1829-1898),Kenri Nakaima (仲井間憲里1819-1879) and others(Shiroma城間,Kinjo金城,Oyadomari親泊,Yamasato山里,Nakasato仲里) paid the tuition to him and learned martial arts.
But as a result, the bad rumor " Bushi Matsumura was taught Karate by a beggar" spread.So it has been concealed the existence of Chan- Nan until recently in the history of Karate.But, by a recent study, this beggar figure martial artist was proved to be a great benefactor of Karate.
Kata which he introduced into Okinawa is Naifanchi(Tekki),Passai(Bassai),Chinto(Gankaku),
"The Heian(Pinan)" which spread widely was named "Channan" at first.The person who renamed Channan to Pinan is Anko Itosu (糸洲安恒).Furthermore, it is Gichin Funakoshi(船越義珍1868-1957) to have renamed Pinan to Heian.
..Chan Nan seemed to hurry returning home. He disappeared suddenly.And he moved to Taiwan. Kyan Chotoku went to Taiwan in pursuit of him. And he learned "Ananko" from Chan Nan..
On earth who was Chan Nan?According to today's study, he was a high level leader of
the " Taiping Rebellion(1850-1864)" by the Christian in China.Paiku and Heiku and Anan have the same opening movement (ten-chi-no-kamae:kamae of heaven and earth).
Generally, the opening movement of Kata stores away various messages and memory.
I think the three Kata's opening movement may be related to the philosophy of Chan Nan,the leader of Taiping Rebellion.
The Chinese masters who had big influence on Syuri-te are as follows.
①Ku syan ku(拳聖公)→Tode Sakugawa(唐手佐久川)
②Wang Daxing(王打興＝Wai Shinzan = Wang Shijian = Wang Yuedang)→Sokon Matsumura(松村宗棍)
③Chan Nan(禅南)→Anko Itosu(糸洲安恒)
|18/9/2017 The historical movement that remains in Kata
"The most weak point was the topknot"
|..Until about 150 years before, a man's hair-style in East Asia was "the topknot".The shapes of the topknot are different by country and times.(In Japan ,high temperature and humidity, the samurai shaved the part except the topknot to prevent his head from hot flashes by the helmet(kabuto).)The topknot was proof of the full-fledged man and was a pride.Of course, Okinawan too.But, the topknot was the biggest weak point in the barehanded (Karate)battle.髷(まげ)は一人前の男子の証であったが、素手の戦いでは頭部を制圧される弱点にもなった。|
| In the battle, it meant death that the topknot was caught by the enemy.
So, it was alway necessary for Karate- ka to be careful with his back of head .So, there is Kata which the to protect his topknot to the enemy of the rear is seen in.This is the throwing technique.But the left hand "ura-uke" turns in the back of head and serves as the defense of my back of head (position of the topknot) to the enemy of the rear.セーパイのこの投げの挙動には手を後頭部へ回して背後から髷が敵に掴まれないようにする歴史的動作が残っている。
The left photos are from Saifa.This movement protect my back of head , too.Interestingly, this Kata has the historic movement to haul in topknot of the enemy with a forefinger and the middle finger.In Kata which you learn, is the movement to protect the back of the head by a hand not found? 同様に瞬間的に髷を守るサイファの挙動。なお、興味深いことに、この型には人差し指と中指で敵の髷を根元からひっかけて手繰り寄せる歴史的挙動も残っている。
" Tribute to the Shihan Josep Claramonte's challenge to the MMA"
| My main occupation is the high school teacher.The high school of Japan
usually has Judo club, and there are some black belt students and the strong
pro coach.I had fought against them willingly. Iit was easy to find "the partner".Of
course I did not use tsuki and keri .But most of my technique maybe was
the violation in Judo. I maybe troubled Judo-ka not a little.But those
experiences became the hints to solve the mysteries of Gojuryu and brushup my Karate skill.( Famous Gojuryu-Karateka were almost strong Judo-Ka at the same time.)
...Karate is sometimes said to be the final "Bujutsu武術" in Japan.(The word "Bujuts" is often used for "the earlier state of Budo武道".)The training of Bujuts is including "the battle under no rule" and or"the battle with plural enemies having the weapons".(The training of Budo makes much of mind and a form and courtesy.)I also think Karate is "Budo" and also is "Bujutsu".So karate should do the training to fight with plural enemies and or the fight with the weapon even now.
..The technique of Karate is the product of the lawless combat in old Okinawa.But, naturally the limitation from the times exists.In that time, boxing and wrestling were not known in Okinawa.We must know that the technique of Karate was made in the premise.Much more,the innovation of the modern martial art is constantly advancing.
..I think it also will be a good experience to fight with Mixed Martial Arts.This is because we are too ignorant about MMA.But It is for purpose that is not merely for victory.A tennis player cannot win in the badminton game with a badminton player.But the tennis player may know some big hint.
In the case of Karate,who survives in the situation that there is no rule.Of course it is the impossible situation in the peaceful times.
I got the email from Shihan Josep Claramonte,the brnch chief of Yuzenkai China,this time.
..."I took a chance and I steeped into a MMA cage to do a pro fight.No, I do not try to be a MMA fighter but this was something I had to do. It's difficult to explain, but I feel like putting myself in the line of harm will help me to develop a better understanding of Karate.Maybe this is the only time I do it, but still, it has helped me to understand myself better. I lost the fight, to a stronger opponent, but I gained much from the experience.Now, time to reevaluate my Karate and keep on training."
I was moved by his action. And I replied to him.
"I fully support the attitude to your Karate.And I am proud of you.I admire your courage, challenge spirit and desire for truth.The fight in the rule of MMA is very disadvantageous to Karate.The minute hand and or finger attack including Sei-ken,Ura-ken,Ippon-ken,Nuki-te,Kami-te,Syotei,Keikou-ken,Nodowa etc. are almost blockaded by the glove.The opponent may know Karate by his past experience.But you do not know MMA in detail.I like your word.I feel like putting myself in the line of harm will help me to develop a better understanding of Karate.I think that you become a pioneer of new Karate."
The principle of the movement is totally different in the Karate's tsuki by the barehand and the punch by the glove hand.So tsuki of Karate largely loses the power when we attach the gloves.And it is fatal for Karate that the attack ,the defense and the throwing by using the finger are impossible.
But he jumped into the enemy land (the cage ring and MMA rule)without the background knowledge and experience, and he fought hard well.Shihan Josep Claramonte said "I lost the fight, to a stronger opponent, but I gained much from the experience.Now, time to reevaluate my Karate and keep on training." ....I moved again.
Round 1 ......Round2......Shihan Josep Claramonte's blog.
|1/9/2017 " The another Gojuryu?" .
..Juhatsu Kyoda the first disciple of Kanryo Higaonna
|..Needless to say,the main origin of Gojuryu is the Nahate of Kanryo Higaonna (11853～1915). Chojun Miyagi (1888～1953)added his study and innovation to Higaonna's Karate.Then he founded Gojuryu and developed it to the world wide Karate. I think the modification, the system and Kata which Miyagi added to Higaonna's Nahate was too big. In terms of the originality and the rationality , Miyagi was genius. photo:Kyoda Juhatsu,Chojun Miyagi,Kanryo Higaonna|
|..On the other hand, Kanryo Higaonna had another faithful disciple. He was Juhatsu Kyoda (1887～1968). He was the senior of Chojun Miyagi. Kyoda was a conservative, and adherence the Naha-te of Kanryo Higaonna. And he did not have any Dojo and recruit any disciples publicly . I would like to talk to you about Juhatsu Kyoda who is not much mentioned in the history of Gojuryu. photo;young Juhatsu Kyoda|
..Juhatsu Kyoda was born in 1887. Father is Juko Kyoda, and he is the friend of Kanryo Higaonna.The nickname of Kyoda was "Stahchi". The meaning is elder brother like a small barrel. He learned at Syuri secondary school.Chomo Hanashiro(1869～1945) was the teacher of physical education at the school, and Anko Itosu was Shihan of the karate club in this school.After graduate, he entered the college of education.Kenstu Yabu (1866～1937)was the teacher of the Courage.At this time, Kyoda learned "Jion" from Yabu. photos;Anko Itosu,Kenstu Yabu,Chomo Hanashiro
| ..Kyoda found the job in Naha Elementary School in 1913. Gichin Fnakkoshi
(1868～1957) was the co-worker in this school.In other words, Kyoda had
friendship with eminent people of Okinawa Karate at the time.Until the
death (1915) of Kanryo Higaonna, Kyoda had been instructed by Higaonna.By
the way, Kata of Higaonna is only four: Sanchin,Sesan, Sanseiru,Betturin(According
to Kyoda, the opinion that Bettyurin is the alias of Suparinpei is a mistake.).
..The house of Miyagi was the business magnate of the Chinese medicine.So he was able to devote himself only to a study and development of Gojuryu throughout a life.On the other hand, Juhatsu Kyoda was a school teacher by nature.
..It is the famous fact that only Kyoda learned Sanseru from Kanryo Higaonna while Miyagi left from Okinawa to military service in 1909.Kyoda had failed the conscription inspection. Because his height was too low.Miyagi felt bitter about it very much. It is unknown who taught Sanseru to Miyagi.
| Kyoda became the principal of Tomari elementary school in 1934. He became
Shihan of the Karate club of the Naha secondary school at the same time.
Around 1926,the Okinawa Karate club was established in Wakasa town in Naha.The representative was Choyu Motobu (1867～1930). Chojun Miyagi, Kenwa Mabuni (1889～1952), Kenki Go (1886～1940), Juhatsu Kyoda and other comrade gathered to the club, and they studied Karate and taught it.
Choyu Motobu was from the royal family and was the Karate expert. Perhaps because of it, he knew a lot of unknown Kata. According to the record of the Motobu side, Miyagi was taught some unknown Kata by Choyu Motobu in this club.
It is unknown when and where Miyagi learned Saifa,Seienchi,
Shisouchin,Kururunfa,Suparinpei.I suppose that it was the time of this Karate club that he could do it.And I think Miyagi added those new Kata to the list of his Gojuryu.Kenki Go taught to Miyagi the Kakufa, and taught to Kyoda the Nepai.
I think this club was the water source of most of rare Kata which we sometimes see. photo;Choyu Motobu
"Tsuji" area at that time.The downtown where the Karate guys played "kake-dameshi" (street fight for testing his arm).
Naha Port at the time.
The harbor which was unexpectedly modern .
|..In 1941, Japan participated in World War II.Kyoda, reached the retiring
age around the same time.He moved to Beppu-city of Oita of Kyushu before
Okinawa became the tragic battlefield.After World War II, US.army occupied
Japan. Also Beppu city was occupied by the one of them.
..One day Kyoda was attacked in downtown by two U.S. soldiers.He overthrew two people by technique of Bunkai of Sesan in an instant.They might have despised this small-sized old man.
..In 1953, Chojun Miyagi died. That time, a biggest sect of Gojuryu thought to assign Kyoda to the top authority instead of Miyagi.Kyoda required to change the name of Gojuryu to Touon-Gojuryu.Touon is the Chinese reading of the kanji "Higaonna". Of course it was impossible. In short, he declined it.
|..Kyoda had criticized that Gojuryu of Miyagi greatly had changed Karate
of Kanryo Higaonna.He had emphasized that Suparinpei of Gojuryu and Betturin
of Kanryo Higaonna was different.(So, in Yuzenkai, we learn Suparinpei
and Betturin as different Kata.And, Sanchin which we train is Sanchin of Higaonna.)
..In 1958, Kyoda became the Shihan of the Karate club of the Beppu base of the Self-Defense Forces.He instructed about 120 members according to the instruction method of Kanryo Higaonna.Three months later, only two members remained.
photo;Juhatsu Kyoda at the time of Shihan of the Karate club of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces Oita garrison.
| ..Juhatsu Kyoda had the strong self-confidence as the correct successor of
Kanryo Higaonna.However, he had no ambition to spread his Karate. He was
the person who never did compromise and the flattery for the spread of
his Karate.In 1968, Juhatsu Kyoda died. He was 81 years old.
photo;Juhatsu Kyoda in his latest year
|26/5/2017 About the TENSYO|
| I feel recently Tensyo might be downplayed in the training of Gojuryu Dojos.I think it is a big mistake to lose sight of essence of Gojuryu. Tensyo is the Kata which Chojun Miyagi created.
Anyone knows Tensyo was made from the six simple figuresand it's explanation that was written in Bubishi by Chojun Miyagi, if he learn Gojuryu.The word Rok-ki-shu (六 -機 -手) means "six variation of hand".Bubishi does not explain most about Rokkisyu.It only simply explain when you attack the enemy's specific vital point by six variation of hand, he loses the life.It looks difficult to create that Tensyo,a high level Kata, from mere six figures and concise explanation.Furthermore, I think that it is impossible to deduce movement of Kata of Tensyo only from these six figures if I say.
|I think this Kata includes four elements historically.
1."Rok-ki-syu" ,brief six pictures and descriptionin which were written in "BUBISHI"
2."Tsuru no te"(kenpo of crane) of Miyagi's Chinese friend Go Kenki(Wu Xian Gui ).He was a tea merchant who emigrated to Okinawa from China in 1912,and the expert of of Fujian White Crane.
3.Technique of Wushu that he got in his short trips to China in 1915(Fujian ) and 1917(Shanghai).
4.Koneri-te,the operation knead the hand in the Okinawan ethnic dance.
|Miyagi was theoretical Karate-Ka who selected among the traditional Nahate Kata and classified them in the his original system of Go(Hard) and Ju(Soft) and fixed Sanchin(which he succeeded to from predecessor) and Tensyo(which he created) in each basic.Tensyo is the basic in the basic of every offense and defense.In addition, various joint locks are generated from it.You will be awakened to the true battle methode of Gojuryu by training this eagerly.|
|Of course it is not to repeat merely Tensyo.It is essential to train Bunkai
with opponent.Only by doing so,you will become able to understand the guideline
of the interpretation of Gojuryu, and various skill about offense and defense
that Kata shows.We should value more Tensyo, and study it and fix it in
the center of the training.
→Refer to the members only site: the video clip "Detail of Tensyo and it's training:May 29enlargement".(The old version was abolished.)
|1/1/2017 Karate and Karatedo
What is difference when the “do” attaches?
|...We usually use the word “Karate”.But, in a sense, this is an abbreviated
form which has the risk to lose essence of "Budo" (traditional
martial arts of Japan).
Strictly speaking, the right word is not Karate, but is Karatedo. When we talk with merely karate, it points at combat sport called karate.The meaning is deepened when end of a word "do" attaches it in "Karate".(“do” is pronounced the “dou” in Japanese.)
Not only Budo, a lot of Arts in Japan has the end of word "do". Those "do" has an active meaning that "seeking for truth".So the meaning of Karate-do is "seeking for truth of way of life by means of Karate".
Karate-ka must be "the seeker after truth".Japanese Budo made much of Zen since ancient times.So Bodo is also called " moving Zen..By the way, is "Zen" practiced to show others it?The answer is NO. It completely loses essence and an effect of Zen if a person practices "Zen" as a performance for others. Karatedo is training and discipline for way of life. So the aim is same as Zen.
(This is the article that is partly revised of my contribution to Shihan Hamed Zafaranlou's Karate book which was published on November 2016.)
【1】“If you learn from the history and understand the present age, you can become an excellent Shihan.”(old common saying)
Karate has become Olympics sports of 2020.At that time, the follow news reached me when we were soak in the after glow of the closing ceremony of Rio Olympics.
..On September, 2016, a 63 age and 170cm man , was attacked by the Asiatic black bear about 190 cm in mountains in Japan. But it was a misfortune for the bear, he is high level Dan holder Karate-ka. The bear's power was extraordinary. He was blown off by only a miss attack of the bear. Number to fight minutes,he attacked the bear's right eye with Nukite. The bear escaped. It was good that a life was saved.”
He drove his car by himself and went to the hospital. He was wounded in the head and the right arm, but was all the slight wound of complete cure two weeks.
..In traditional Karate, the finger always aims enemy's eye. This 63-year-old Karate-ka would have been training hard at such a traditional technique. If it had not been so, he could not instantly approach the bear and strike the bear’s eyes accurately.But such a training is useless to sports Karate competition.
The rule restricts the skill .Thereby it secures the safety and the ease of judgment. But we should regard what we lost and what we obtained.
For instance, let's do kumite with permission of Kinteki-keri.
How does your kumite change? Similarly, let's do kumite with the permission of attack to eyes, an ear and hair. In the situation, is Jodan mawashigeri effective? You must understand the real intention of sanchin-dachi,nekoashi-dachi and zenkutsu-dachi. Furthermore,in my dojo we sometimes try to against the plural enemies, the enemy having knives. By these little invention, the recognition of our Karate should change.
The game with the referee, the rule, the stopwatch and one opponent is only one side of Karate.I do not think that game is unnecessary not to mention.
.In fact, in my dojo, the exercises of kids is sports Karate style.But, It is not enough to reach the Karatedo.I goona write the six points which I would like you to mind on Karate .
【2】Karate historically was developed as Bujutsu to resist the samurai carring Japanese sword in Okinawan. In other words, Karate suppose the fighting against the multiple enemies and or the enemy having the weapon. We must not forget this Karate historical character. And Karate-ka was not proud of himself. We must not make Karate the means of conceit and or threat, too.
【3】Seiken is just only the one of form of fist of Karate.
In development of the modern education system, Karate kata changed to the seiken-centered motion. Karate originally used the of variety fist form depending on the vital points of enemy. We must study deeply the vital points. And we must practice to strike the vital points with an appropriate fist precisely. In modern sports Karate, the training of the fist is unnecessary. Even in Japan, the recent young people do not strengthen his fist.The fist of Karate-ka’s fist must’nt be the same the one of amateur.
【4】The technique of Karate is not only tuki and keri. Karate is a system of tuki, keri, joint lock, grappling hold, throw and choking. They are usually trained by yakusoku-kumite. And more,Yuzenkai suggests the new Gojuryu full-contact rule.
【5】We must know the mechanical rationality of karate.
Mechanical rationality of Karate is comprised by the power caused by twisting, the power caused by sinking, the power caused by rising, the power caused by advance, the power of the action and reaction, the power caused by release,and the principle of leverage.
①Power caused by twisting is,for instance, seen in Kata of sanchin. The power caused from the lower half of the body in sanchin-dachi reaches the arm via the waist, the back, and the shoulder, and is converted into Seiken tuki.
②Power caused by sinking is the power from suddenly change from high posture to low posture. This is the using of potential energy. For instance, it is seen in the Age-tuki at the same time as suddenly lowering posture in Kata of Seienchin.
③Power caused by rising, for instance,is the power seen in kata Sesan.(Continuously three times Seiken at the same time suddenly raising posture.)
④Power caused by advance is, for instance,the power of the operation that advances rapidly position. This is the using of potential energy, too. This power is typically seen in kata Heiku, Paiku, and Anan.
⑤ Powerer of action and reaction is, for instance, the power seen in the right seiken tsuki with strongly pulling the left seiken. In kata Sisouchin, the osae-uke uses this power.
⑥Power caused by release is, for instance, seen in kata Saifa.(Uraken attack with rapidly expansion posture from shrinkage posture.).
⑦ Principle of leverage is seen in the sashite technigue(the stabbing hands) in the kata Sanseru.An important point is to use your both arms like a stick. Don't you bend the joint of your arm, and don't catch the arm of opponent. You must set Sashite to make the opponent's vital point (Hizizume or Wanjun) the fulcrum.Turn the your body to throw the opponent to the direction of the force.
I do not deny the significance of the competition Kata. I only would like to say that we should become aware of it. The standardization of Kata deprived the historical combat operations from Kata.
For instance, many Karate books for the beginner explain the mae-geri in kata Saifa is kinteki-geri. But this keri originally is the technique to inserting the tiptoe in enemy's vital point. The old Karate-ka forged his tiptoe, and broke enemy's internal organs by it. This technique had disappeared in competition kata. Tsuki is also similar. In traditional Gojuryu, when the tsuki hit to the enemy, we screw our seiken in the enemy's body by a little shoulder movement. And the tsuki should be do as to break the enemy's spine and or the back of the head. Goluryu Sihans had taught like the method until half a century ago.
【6】We must study a continuity of kihon and kata and kumite.The truth of Karate is in the deep continuity between kihon,kata and kumite. The Karate lucks this continuity of three elements is mere combat sport. So, the study of Kata is very important.
For instance,it is the moment when the joint lock "hiji-ori" made a hit in opponent in jiyu kumite. The kata "Sisouchin" has the usage of this technique.
The next is the basic training the "hiki-uke" for this technique: It is one of the kihon(hojo-undo) .
It is the training "Kake-te" to use the "hiki-uke" instantly in jiyu-kumite.We practice this repeatedly earnestly until the picture comes out in jiyu-kumite in.
Many joint locks of Gojuryu are put out not by catching(tukami) but by crossing(sashite).
In a speedy battle of Karate, there are no time to catch a opponent.
I will say once again. kata and kumite and kihon must be related together.Recently participants of competition must do kata as acting for show. Even if people watches the real training Kata, he maybe feel it like a poor performance.However, we who investigate karate as bujutsu must continue training kata not the show but the training.And we discover the technique that a certain innumerable movement suggests in kata.
Karate Kata has the history of the secretiveness. The next explanation is a guideline for you.(the nine principles for Bunkai of Gojuryu Kata)
①In kata, the uke moving front means the attack, and the one getting back means the defense.
②The rotation of the body imply the throwing technique.
③The motion in Kata often should be interpreted as reverse action for Bunkai.
④Do not obsess over the demonstration line .
⑤Uke has always converted to grab the opponent and fall him.
⑥The seiken attack to the face have to be converted to the palm or the nukite or the Kamite.
⑦The one attack goes to only one enemy.
⑧The direction of the tiptoe foretells the next motion.
⑨Nekoashi-dachi means always the keri
【7】From Bujutsu to Budo
As previously described,Japanese traditional technical culture was sublimated to ethical or Zen philosophy in the long history .The Japanese has expressed it by the word "Do".The Japanese martial arts, Ju-do,Ken-do,Aiki-do,Kyu-do,Iai-do , Karate-do are typical examples.And Syo-do (calligraphy), Tya-do(tea ceremony ),Ka-do ( flower arrangement) are also good examples.Karate is ultimately the spirit, the way of life and the art. Finally, I introduce you the old proverb of Japanese samurai .
The man of fortitude is the man gentlemanly.The courageous person is the person with deep love.
|2/10/2016 What is "osu" originally ?|
|..The word "osu" is a well-known greetings of karate.More say,in Japan, "osu" is used as greetings well in boy, high school student and university
studentl.But it is a mistake if you think all Japanese karate dojo uses
"osu" as for granted.
Karate dojo in Japan surely use the word "osu" but not all. They use "hai" as common sense greetings.And the dojos of okinawa do not use "osu" as far as I know it.In fact, I have not been using it until recently, too. I had had uncomfortable feeling on this word.Because this word has a impression of no class.On earth what is "osu?"
The word originates from a morning greetings of university students in the early 20th century.(According to one estimate,it was Takushoku university) "Good morning" is "o-hayou-gozaimas" in Japanese."o-hayou-gozaimas" was omitted and changed into "o-hayossu" and finally became "osu".In other words, the word "osu" was vulgar contracted form of "good morning".Takushoku university at the time was the university which was famous for the martial arts.Therefore the influence on other university students was strong, too.
It was university graduates to have pulled Japanese karate after World War II. JKA (Japan Karate Association), Mas Oyama's Kyokushin are big one of them.They used "osu" which they were familiar with for school days routinely.In other dojo ,the "osu" came to be copied from it before long, too.
Now "osu" is "押忍"written in Kanji.The character "押" is "overwhelm" , and "忍"is "endure" . Of course it is a phonetic equivalent.So this kanji has strange expression.But because the meaning of the "substitute character" is felt to be good for karate, "osu" is used now in many karate dojo.Incidentally most other traditional Budo(martial arts) in Japan do not use the word "osu".
|3/4/2016 "Douwai ",Kata of mystery|
|In a sense,Kata was originally folklore in Okinawa.Founders of Ryuhas had
selected some Katas according to his philosophy, and created the system
of his Ryuha.Kenwa Mabuni was a maximum collector of Kata.But his collection
is not all.Some Kata, which were not choiced by famous founders.
In our sect,some Kata of mystery exist.For example, there is Kata called "Douwai".We do not know the details of them .(The photographs are "some parts of Douwai")
This Kata not seen in other sects. This is, so to speak, an endangered species.
Of course,"Douwai" is out of Gojuryu standard list.But the Kata has character of Gojuryu.Sometimes,this kata may be called Rouhai.I guess "Douwai"‘is a corrupted form of "Rouhai".Surely this resembles Matsumura Rouhai of Shitoryu to some extent.And it resembles the Tomari Rouhai closely further.They might be "Kyoudai-te" (brothers -Kata).
By the way,"Rouhai" (Okinawa dialect) was clearly influenced by Chinese luohan quan (羅漢拳) .This Kata 's features is one-legged posture.In Okinawa, the posture is called "the foot of the heron".So Rouhai is written 鷺牌 (Shield of the heron) in a kanji.But this name was changed the Meikyo (明鏡：Bright mirror) by Gichin Funakoshi.It means that the brightly clear heart like a mirror.
Acording to folklore,certain General who escaped from Taiping Civil War(1850 to 1864) in China thought this Kata to some Okinawan Karate master.As a result,this Kata became three type Rouhai (Tomari Rouhai,Matsumura Rouhai and Douwai(Naha-te Rouhai)) by the difference of their sect (Tomari-te, Syuri-te and Naha-te) If so, the three Rouhai has further relation through the General with Heiku,
Paiku and Anan.While presumptuous, I might add Douwai to the list of Yuzenkai Nahate Gojuryu in the future.In that case ,"羅漢" is good for the Phonetic equivalent kanji.
|7/3/2016 ..About the technique of Sashite (Stabbing hands)|
|Sashite (Stabbing hands)is a generic name of the technique using "the leverage”, and it is one of the important technique of Goju-Ryu. Sashite" is seen in much Kata.I will explain Sashite as an example in Sanseru and Gekisai.|
|Movement of Sashite in Kata「Sanseru」.
This movement means the following throwing technique by Sashite and body turn.
|An important point is to use your both arms like a stick.Don't you bend the joint of your arm, and don't catch the
arm of opponent.You must set Sashite to make the attacker's vital point
(Hizizume or Wanjun) the fulcrum.Turn the your body to throw the opponent
to the direction of the force.
Sashite" in Gekisai
Assignment:This is the last movement of kata "Sisouchin". This movement is Sashite.Try bunkai it.
|1/2/2016 ..Common view that Karate had been used in actual combats looks suspicious(?)|
|In March, 2015, the education authorities of the Urazoe city in Okinawa
prefecture,Japan announced "The investigation report about the origin of Ryukyu Karate".It is a reports by a small town education authorities but has some
interesting viewpoints.Because the famous martial arts reserchers in China and Okinawa participated and many historical documents of the Chinese side were referred to this study .
I want to explain it briefly..
According to the report , the common view that Karate had been used in actual combats looks suspicious.
The Ryukyu kingdom at the time did not have a standing military. In the first place, there was no war in there.So the aim of the Okinawan samurai was to become a bureaucrat.Perhaps Kata had been a kind of culture of Okinawan samurai, and been a suitable entertainment to show to the king or Mission from China.So it is necessary to consider Kata from viewpoint of not only a martial arts but also a entertainment .沖縄でも武士階級の最大の目標は官僚に採用されることであり、近世沖縄は戦争もなく常備軍もなく、型は実戦使用というよりも国王や貴族、賓客の前で披露する武士の教養ととらえた方が適当である。
I also think that Kata has the taste like a traditional dancing.For example, you may feel a commonality of the nuance of Passai , Saifa and Chinto if you watch the classical performing dancing"the shishimai" (dancing of lions in China, Okinawa, Japan) in the youtube.In other words, these KATA reminds of various movements (playing, being wary, licking it's foot, pushing it's head forward ) of a lion in "Shishi mai".例えばサイファやパッサイなどは古くから広く中国文化圏で行われている獅子舞の動作との関係が強い。
"Shishi no te" (fist of the lion) is seen in traditional Kata Pas-sai and Sai-fa. The word "Sai" is a lion.
But a fist disappeared in modearn game Kata.The report states that the cause that the style of the characteristic lion disappeared is to have introduced karate into the high school education in Okinawa in 1905.)The word "Chin-to" is Zin-tou (The head of group).This means a leader lion of "Shishimai"group.
The opening operation of Passai is a gallant figure of the leader lion which jumped out of the group first.The movement of the sixth and the seventh of Saifa is the technique of fist of lion.
Shishi-mai(dancing of lions)Fist of the lion(shishi no te) in Saifa
It is correct to do this movement not with Seiken but with Shishi no te.
|A movement of the dragon in Kuru-runfa
Kuru…臥waiting for an opportunity
|龍舞 Ryu-mai(dancing of dragon... Ryu(dragon) vs Shihi(lion))Kuru-run" (臥-龍) means a dragon aiming at opportunity to go on the
sky secretly on the ground.
This word is from an ancient Chinese history book " Sanguo Zhi(Records of Three Kingdoms)".
|The other interesting indication by this reports.
1 Passai is Kata of a lion not Kata of a leopard.Passai is "拍-獅 Pau-sai" in a dialect of Fujian, China.This meaning is Shihimai(dancing lion) itself in Fujian.パッサイは拍獅(パウサイ)で福州語で獅子舞の意味。
2 Hei-hu-quan (黒-虎-拳：black-tiger-fist)influenced Gojuryu,too.剛柔流は長拳である黒虎拳の影響もある。
3 Chinto comes from the meaning of a head (頭：Tou：leader) and a camp (陣：Chin：group of festivals).It is not essentially specific Kata but is the good Kata of the group leader.チントーの語源は陣頭(獅子舞の頭)であり、もともとは特定の型を指す用語ではなく、獅子舞の頭領の得意とする型の意である。
4 The correct date of birth and death of Wang Daxing (王打興) , one of ancestor of Gojuryu, is 1659~1763.He is the first student of founder Fāng Qīniáng(方七娘) of White Crane (Hakutsuru fist白鶴拳) and he was at second position of 28 geniuses by the master.In a list of that time, the master name Ton Lee-chek" 鄭礼叔 (1654 ...? Tou ryu ko?) is seen.White Crane had been derived to the Fujian district by 林世成 (Rin Shi cheng) in the next times of Wang Daxing (王打興). He may be a progeny of the three or fourth generation of Wang Daxing.Xie Zhongxiang (謝崇祥1852-1930) graduated from Rin Shi cheng's system.(ワイシンザン：ワンシージャン：王師匠：武備志に登場する有名な)王打興は白鶴拳の創始者である方七娘の28人の弟子の2番に位置した弟子である。また彼ととともに五虎と称された弟子に鄭礼叔がいる。王打興の３～4代目の末裔と推定される林世成が白鶴拳を福州へ分派し、その門派から謝崇祥が現れたが、東恩納寛量が福州で師事したのは彼であるという有力な説がある。
|No.15 Message from kancho in the beginning of 2015|
|No.14 The sword stored in the sheath is stronger than the sword pulled out from the sheath.|
|No.13 Mas Oyama as great Gojuryu fighter."The circle motion is a principle of Karate"|
|No.12 About the adjusting method of the body(The Orient medical and Gojuryu Karatedo).|
|No.11 On basic Japanese words for Karate|
|No.10About the (historical) movement that had disappeared in Kata(For instance, for SAIFA)|
|No.9 Misunderstanding about the Karate weapon "SAI".|
|No.7 Secret that lurks in the final operation of "SUPARINPEI".|
|No.6 six powers that composes Nahate-Gojuryu Karate|
|No.5 40 years passed after Bruce Lee had died(1940-1973)|
|No.4 At Okinawa|
|NO,3 Is the technique of modern Kendo the same as the technique of "Japanese sword"?|
|NO,2 Famous Samurais that appears in "youtube"|
|NO,1 Is Ninja exist?|
|returns at the page top|